Business informatics (BI) is a discipline combining economics, economics of digitization, business administration, information technology (IT), and concepts of computer science. Business informatics centers around creating programming and equipment frameworks which ultimately provides the organization with effective operation based on information technology application. The focus on programming and equipment boosts the value to the analysis of economics and information technology. The BI discipline was created in Germany (in German: Wirtschaftsinformatik). It is an established academic discipline including bachelor, master, diploma and PhD programs in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, The Netherlands, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and is establishing in an increasing number of other countries as well as Finland, Australia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Malaysia, Mexico, Poland and India.
The City of Leeds is a city and metropolitan borough in West Yorkshire, England. The metropolitan borough includes the administrative centre of Leeds and the towns of Farsley, Garforth, Guiseley, Horsforth, Morley, Otley, Pudsey, Rothwell, Wetherby and Yeadon. It has a population of 793,139 (mid-2019 est.), making it technically the second largest city in England by population behind Birmingham, since London is not a single local government entity. It is governed by Leeds City Council.
The current city boundaries were set on 1 April 1974 by the provisions of the Local Government Act 1972, as part a reform of local government in England. The city is a merger of eleven former local government districts; the unitary City and County Borough of Leeds combined with the municipal boroughs of Morley and Pudsey, the urban districts of Aireborough, Garforth, Horsforth, Otley and Rothwell, and parts of the rural districts of Tadcaster, Wharfedale and Wetherby from the West Riding of Yorkshire.
For its first 12 years the city had a two-tier system of local government; Leeds City Council shared power with West Yorkshire County Council. Since the Local Government Act 1985 Leeds City Council has effectively been a unitary authority, serving as the sole executive, deliberative and legislative body responsible for local policy, setting council tax, and allocating budget in the city, and is a member of the Leeds City Region Partnership. The City of Leeds is divided into 31 civil parishes and a single unparished area.