Business informatics (BI) is a discipline combining economics, economics of digitization, business administration, information technology (IT), and concepts of computer science. Business informatics centers around creating programming and equipment frameworks which ultimately provides the organization with effective operation based on information technology application. The focus on programming and equipment boosts the value to the analysis of economics and information technology. The BI discipline was created in Germany (in German: Wirtschaftsinformatik). It is an established academic discipline including bachelor, master, diploma and PhD programs in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, The Netherlands, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and is establishing in an increasing number of other countries as well as Finland, Australia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Malaysia, Mexico, Poland and India.
North Wales (Welsh: Gogledd Cymru), also known as the North of Wales (or simply the North, or in Welsh 'y Gogledd' in Wales), is a geographic region of Wales, encompassing its northernmost areas. It borders Mid Wales (or South Wales under some definitions) to the south, England to the east, and the Irish Sea to the north and west. The area is highly mountainous and rural, with Snowdonia National Park (Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri) and the Clwydian Range, known for its mountains, waterfalls and trails, located wholly within the region. Its population is more concentrated in the north-east, and northern coastal areas of the region, whilst significant Welsh-speaking populations are situated in its western and rural areas. North Wales is imprecisely defined, lacking any exact definition or administrative structure. For the public purposes of health, policing and emergency services, and for statistical, economic and cultural[note 2] purposes, North Wales is commonly defined administratively as its six most northern principal areas, but other definitions of the geographic region exist, with Montgomeryshire historically considered to be part of the region.
Those from North Wales are sometimes referred to as "Gogs" (from "Gogledd" – the Welsh word for "north"); in comparison, those from South Wales are sometimes called "Hwntws" by those from North Wales.
The region includes the localities of Wrexham, Deeside, Rhyl, Colwyn Bay, Flint, Bangor, Llandudno, and Holyhead. The largest localities in North Wales are the town of Wrexham and the conurbations of Deeside and Rhyl/Prestatyn, where the main retail, cultural, educational, tourism, and transport infrastructure and services of North Wales are located.