Data are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric, that are collected through observation. In a more technical sense, data are a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables about one or more persons or objects, while a datum (singular of data) is a single value of a single variable.
Although the terms "data" and "information" are often used interchangeably, these terms have distinct meanings. In some popular publications, data are sometimes said to be transformed into information when they are viewed in context or in post-analysis. However, in academic treatments of the subject data are simply units of information. Data are used in scientific research, businesses management (e.g., sales data, revenue, profits, stock price), finance, governance (e.g., crime rates, unemployment rates, literacy rates), and in virtually every other form of human organizational activity (e.g., censuses of the number of homeless people by non-profit organizations).
Data are measured, collected, reported, and analyzed, and used to create data visualizations such as graphs, tables or images. Data as a general concept refers to the fact that some existing information or knowledge is represented or coded in some form suitable for better usage or processing. Raw data ("unprocessed data") is a collection of numbers or characters before it has been "cleaned" and corrected by researchers. Raw data needs to be corrected to remove outliers or obvious instrument or data entry errors (e.g., a thermometer reading from an outdoor Arctic location recording a tropical temperature). Data processing commonly occurs by stages, and the "processed data" from one stage may be considered the "raw data" of the next stage. Field data is raw data that is collected in an uncontrolled "in situ" environment. Experimental data is data that is generated within the context of a scientific investigation by observation and recording.
Data has been described as the new oil of the digital economy.
Wellingborough (/ˈwɛlɪŋbərə/ WEL-ing-bər-ə) is a large market town in the Wellingborough district of Northamptonshire, England, 11 miles (18 km) from Northampton on the north side of the River Nene.
Originally named "Wendelingburgh" (the stronghold of Wændel's people), the Anglo-Saxon settlement is mentioned in the Domesday Book as "Wendelburie". The town was granted a royal market charter in 1201 by King John.
At the 2011 census, the town had a population of 49,128. The Borough Council of Wellingborough has its offices in the town centre. The town is twinned with Niort in France, and with Wittlich in Germany.
The town is predicted to grow by 30 per cent under the Milton Keynes South Midlands (MKSM) study, and the government has identified Wellingborough as one of several towns in Northamptonshire where growth in jobs and housing will be directed. The area will see an addition of around 10,000 homes by 2031, mainly to the east of the town. Wellingborough, along with Corby and Kettering together comprise the core of the North Northamptonshire growth area, coordinated by the North Northamptonshire Joint Planning and Delivery. The town also has a growing commuter population as it is on the Midland Main Line railway, operated by East Midlands Railway, with trains to London St Pancras International taking under an hour, and an interchange with Eurostar services.