M and E
Mechanical engineering is an engineering branch that combines engineering physics and mathematics principles with materials science, to design, analyze, manufacture, and maintain mechanical systems. It is one of the oldest and broadest of the engineering branches.
The mechanical engineering field requires an understanding of core areas including mechanics, dynamics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis, and electricity. In addition to these core principles, mechanical engineers use tools such as computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), and product lifecycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, heating and cooling systems, transport systems, aircraft, watercraft, robotics, medical devices, weapons, and others. It is the branch of engineering that involves the design, production, and operation of machinery.
Mechanical engineering emerged as a field during the Industrial Revolution in Europe in the 18th century; however, its development can be traced back several thousand years around the world. In the 19th century, developments in physics led to the development of mechanical engineering science. The field has continually evolved to incorporate advancements; today mechanical engineers are pursuing developments in such areas as composites, mechatronics, and nanotechnology. It also overlaps with aerospace engineering, metallurgical engineering, civil engineering, structural engineering, electrical engineering, manufacturing engineering, chemical engineering, industrial engineering, and other engineering disciplines to varying amounts. Mechanical engineers may also work in the field of biomedical engineering, specifically with biomechanics, transport phenomena, biomechatronics, bionanotechnology, and modelling of biological systems.
Electrical engineeringis anengineeringdiscipline concerned with the study, design, and application of equipment, devices, and systems which useelectricity,electronics, andelectromagnetism. It emerged as an identifiable occupation in the latter half of the 19th century aftercommercializationof theelectric telegraph, the telephone, andelectrical powergeneration, distribution, and use.
Electrical engineering is now divided into a wide range of different fields, includingcomputer engineering,systems engineering,power engineering, telecommunications,radio-frequency engineering,signal processing,instrumentation,photovoltaic cells,electronics, andopticsandphotonics. Many of these disciplines overlap with other engineering branches, spanning a huge number of specializations including hardware engineering,power electronics, electromagnetics and waves,microwave engineering,nanotechnology,electrochemistry, renewable energies, mechatronics/control, and electrical materials science.[a]
Electrical engineers typically hold adegreein electrical engineering or electronic engineering. Practising engineers may haveprofessional certificationand be members of aprofessional bodyor an international standards organization. These include theInternational Electrotechnical Commission(IEC), theInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers(IEEE) and theInstitution of Engineering and Technology(IET)(formerly the IEE).
Electrical engineers work in a very wide range of industries and the skills required are likewise variable. These range fromcircuit theoryto the management skills of aproject manager. The tools and equipment that an individual engineer may need are similarly variable, ranging from a simplevoltmeterto sophisticated design and manufacturing software.
Devon(/ˈdɛvən/, also known asDevonshire) is acountyofEngland, reaching from theBristol Channelin the north to theEnglish Channelin the south. It is part ofSouth West England, bounded byCornwallto the west,Somersetto the north-east andDorsetto the east. The city ofExeteris thecounty town. The county includes the districts ofEast Devon,Mid Devon,North Devon,South Hams,Teignbridge,TorridgeandWest Devon.PlymouthandTorbayare each geographically part of Devon, but are administered asunitary authorities.Combined as aceremonial county, Devon's area is 6,707 km2(2,590 square miles)and its population is about 1.1 million.
Devon derives its name fromDumnonia(the shift frommtovis a typicalCeltic consonant shift). During theBritish Iron Age,Roman Britainand theearly Middle Ages, this was the homeland of theDumnoniiBrittonicCelts. TheAnglo-Saxon settlement of Britainresulted in the partial assimilation of Dumnonia into theKingdom of Wessexduring the eighth and ninth centuries. The western boundary with Cornwall was set at theRiver TamarbyKing Æthelstanin 936. Devon was later constituted as ashireof theKingdom of England.
The north and south coasts of Devon each have both cliffs and sandy shores, and the county'sbayscontainseaside resorts,fishing townsandports. The inland terrain is rural, generally hilly and has a lower population density than many other parts of England.Dartmooris the largest open space in southern England, at 954 km2(368 square miles);itsmoorlandextends across a large expanse ofgranitebedrock. To the north of Dartmoor are theCulm MeasuresandExmoor. In the valleys and lowlands of south and east Devon the soil is more fertile, drained by rivers including theExe, theCulm, theTeign, theDartand theOtter.
As well as agriculture, much of theeconomy of Devonis based ontourism. The comparatively mild climate, coastline and landscape make Devon a destination forrecreation and leisure in England. Visitors are particularly attracted to the Dartmoor and Exmoornational parks; its coasts, including the resort towns along the south coast known collectively as theEnglish Riviera; theJurassic CoastandNorth Devon's UNESCO Biosphere Reserve; and the countryside including theCornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape.