M and E
Mechanical engineering is an engineering branch that combines engineering physics and mathematics principles with materials science, to design, analyze, manufacture, and maintain mechanical systems. It is one of the oldest and broadest of the engineering branches.
The mechanical engineering field requires an understanding of core areas including mechanics, dynamics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis, and electricity. In addition to these core principles, mechanical engineers use tools such as computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), and product lifecycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, heating and cooling systems, transport systems, aircraft, watercraft, robotics, medical devices, weapons, and others. It is the branch of engineering that involves the design, production, and operation of machinery.
Mechanical engineering emerged as a field during the Industrial Revolution in Europe in the 18th century; however, its development can be traced back several thousand years around the world. In the 19th century, developments in physics led to the development of mechanical engineering science. The field has continually evolved to incorporate advancements; today mechanical engineers are pursuing developments in such areas as composites, mechatronics, and nanotechnology. It also overlaps with aerospace engineering, metallurgical engineering, civil engineering, structural engineering, electrical engineering, manufacturing engineering, chemical engineering, industrial engineering, and other engineering disciplines to varying amounts. Mechanical engineers may also work in the field of biomedical engineering, specifically with biomechanics, transport phenomena, biomechatronics, bionanotechnology, and modelling of biological systems.
Electrical engineeringis anengineeringdiscipline concerned with the study, design, and application of equipment, devices, and systems which useelectricity,electronics, andelectromagnetism. It emerged as an identifiable occupation in the latter half of the 19th century aftercommercializationof theelectric telegraph, the telephone, andelectrical powergeneration, distribution, and use.
Electrical engineering is now divided into a wide range of different fields, includingcomputer engineering,systems engineering,power engineering, telecommunications,radio-frequency engineering,signal processing,instrumentation,photovoltaic cells,electronics, andopticsandphotonics. Many of these disciplines overlap with other engineering branches, spanning a huge number of specializations including hardware engineering,power electronics, electromagnetics and waves,microwave engineering,nanotechnology,electrochemistry, renewable energies, mechatronics/control, and electrical materials science.[a]
Electrical engineers typically hold adegreein electrical engineering or electronic engineering. Practising engineers may haveprofessional certificationand be members of aprofessional bodyor an international standards organization. These include theInternational Electrotechnical Commission(IEC), theInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers(IEEE) and theInstitution of Engineering and Technology(IET)(formerly the IEE).
Electrical engineers work in a very wide range of industries and the skills required are likewise variable. These range fromcircuit theoryto the management skills of aproject manager. The tools and equipment that an individual engineer may need are similarly variable, ranging from a simplevoltmeterto sophisticated design and manufacturing software.
Northampton /nɔːrˈθæmptən/ (About this soundlisten) is a large market town and the county town of Northamptonshire in the East Midlands of England. It lies on the River Nene, 60 miles (97 km) north-west of London and 50 miles (80 km) south-east of Birmingham. One of the largest towns (as opposed to cities) in England, it had a population of 212,100 at the 2011 census (223,000 est. 2019).
Archaeological evidence of settlement in the area dates to the Bronze Age, Romans and Anglo-Saxons. In the Middle Ages, the town rose to national significance with the establishment of Northampton Castle, an occasional royal residence which regularly hosted the Parliament of England. Medieval Northampton had many churches, monasteries and the University of Northampton, all enclosed by the town walls. It was granted a town charter by Richard I in 1189 and a mayor was appointed by King John in 1215. The town was also the site of two medieval battles, in 1264 and 1460.
Northampton supported the Parliamentary Roundheads in the English Civil War, and Charles II ordered the destruction of the town walls and most of the castle. The Great Fire of Northampton in 1675 destroyed much of the town. It was soon rebuilt and grew rapidly with the industrial development of the 18th century. Northampton continued to grow with the arrival of the Grand Union Canal and the railways in the 19th century, becoming a centre for footwear and leather manufacture.
Northampton's growth was limited until it was designated as a New Town in 1968, accelerating development in the town. It unsuccessfully applied for city status in 2000.