M and E
Mechanical engineering is an engineering branch that combines engineering physics and mathematics principles with materials science, to design, analyze, manufacture, and maintain mechanical systems. It is one of the oldest and broadest of the engineering branches.
The mechanical engineering field requires an understanding of core areas including mechanics, dynamics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis, and electricity. In addition to these core principles, mechanical engineers use tools such as computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), and product lifecycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, heating and cooling systems, transport systems, aircraft, watercraft, robotics, medical devices, weapons, and others. It is the branch of engineering that involves the design, production, and operation of machinery.
Mechanical engineering emerged as a field during the Industrial Revolution in Europe in the 18th century; however, its development can be traced back several thousand years around the world. In the 19th century, developments in physics led to the development of mechanical engineering science. The field has continually evolved to incorporate advancements; today mechanical engineers are pursuing developments in such areas as composites, mechatronics, and nanotechnology. It also overlaps with aerospace engineering, metallurgical engineering, civil engineering, structural engineering, electrical engineering, manufacturing engineering, chemical engineering, industrial engineering, and other engineering disciplines to varying amounts. Mechanical engineers may also work in the field of biomedical engineering, specifically with biomechanics, transport phenomena, biomechatronics, bionanotechnology, and modelling of biological systems.
Electrical engineeringis anengineeringdiscipline concerned with the study, design, and application of equipment, devices, and systems which useelectricity,electronics, andelectromagnetism. It emerged as an identifiable occupation in the latter half of the 19th century aftercommercializationof theelectric telegraph, the telephone, andelectrical powergeneration, distribution, and use.
Electrical engineering is now divided into a wide range of different fields, includingcomputer engineering,systems engineering,power engineering, telecommunications,radio-frequency engineering,signal processing,instrumentation,photovoltaic cells,electronics, andopticsandphotonics. Many of these disciplines overlap with other engineering branches, spanning a huge number of specializations including hardware engineering,power electronics, electromagnetics and waves,microwave engineering,nanotechnology,electrochemistry, renewable energies, mechatronics/control, and electrical materials science.[a]
Electrical engineers typically hold adegreein electrical engineering or electronic engineering. Practising engineers may haveprofessional certificationand be members of aprofessional bodyor an international standards organization. These include theInternational Electrotechnical Commission(IEC), theInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers(IEEE) and theInstitution of Engineering and Technology(IET)(formerly the IEE).
Electrical engineers work in a very wide range of industries and the skills required are likewise variable. These range fromcircuit theoryto the management skills of aproject manager. The tools and equipment that an individual engineer may need are similarly variable, ranging from a simplevoltmeterto sophisticated design and manufacturing software.
The Metropolitan Borough of Walsall is a metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England. It is named after its largest settlement, Walsall, but covers a larger area which also includes Aldridge, Bloxwich, Brownhills, Darlaston, Pelsall and Willenhall. It also serves as the post town for nearby Cannock Chase District and Lichfield District respectively.
The borough had an estimated population of 254,500 in 2007.
The current boundaries were set as part of the provisions of the Local Government Act 1972, with a change to the north of the borough in 1994. It is bounded on the west by the City of Wolverhampton, the south by the Metropolitan Borough of Sandwell, to the south east by the City of Birmingham, and by the Staffordshire districts of Lichfield, Cannock Chase and South Staffordshire to the east, north and northwest respectively. Most of the borough is highly industrialised and densely populated, but areas around the north and east of the borough are open space.
In 1986 the borough became an effective unitary authority when the West Midlands County Council was abolished. However it remains part of the West Midlands for ceremonial purposes, and for functions such as policing, fire and public transport.