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Meteorology

Meteorologyis a branch of theatmospheric scienceswhich includesatmospheric chemistryandatmospheric physics, with a major focus onweather forecasting. The study of meteorology dates backmillennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the field afterweather observationnetworks were formed across broad regions. Prior attempts atprediction of weatherdepended on historical data. It was not until after the elucidation of thelaws of physicsand more particularly, the development of the computer, allowing for the automated solution of a great many equations that model the weather, in the latter half of the 20th century that significant breakthroughs in weather forecasting were achieved. An important domain of weather forecasting ismarine weather forecastingas it relates to maritime and coastal safety, in which weather effects also include atmospheric interactions with large bodies of water.

Meteorological phenomenaare observable weather events that are explained by the science of meteorology. Meteorological phenomena are described and quantified by the variables ofEarth's atmosphere:temperature,air pressure,water vapour,mass flow, and the variations and interactions of those variables, and how they change over time. Differentspatial scalesare used to describe and predict weather on local, regional, and global levels.

Meteorology,climatology,atmospheric physics, andatmospheric chemistryare sub-disciplines of theatmospheric sciences. Meteorology andhydrologycompose the interdisciplinary field ofhydrometeorology. The interactions between Earth's atmosphere and its oceans are part of a coupled ocean-atmosphere system. Meteorology has application in many diverse fields such as themilitary,energy production,transport,agriculture, andconstruction.

The wordmeteorologyis from theAncient Greekμετέωροςmetéōros(meteor) and-λογία-logia(-(o)logy), meaning "the study of things high in the air."

Bristol (/ˈbrɪstəl/ (About this soundlisten)) is a city, ceremonial county and unitary authority in England.[3] Situated on the River Avon, it is bordered by the ceremonial counties of Gloucestershire, to the north; and Somerset, to the south. Bristol is the most populous city in South West England.[4] The wider Bristol Built-up Area is the eleventh most populous urban area in the United Kingdom.[5]

Iron Age hill forts and Roman villas were built near the confluence of the rivers Frome and Avon, and around the beginning of the 11th century, the settlement was known as Brycgstow (Old English "the place at the bridge"). Bristol received a royal charter in 1155 and was historically divided between Gloucestershire and Somerset until 1373 when it became a county of itself. From the 13th to the 18th century, Bristol was among the top three English cities, after London, in tax receipts; however, it was surpassed by the rapid rise of Birmingham, Manchester and Liverpool in the Industrial Revolution.

Bristol was a starting place for early voyages of exploration to the New World. On a ship out of Bristol in 1497 John Cabot, a Venetian, became the first European to land on mainland North America. In 1499 William Weston, a Bristol merchant, was the first Englishman to lead an exploration to North America. At the height of the Bristol slave trade, from 1700 to 1807, more than 2,000 slave ships carried an estimated 500,000 people from Africa to slavery in the Americas. The Port of Bristol has since moved from Bristol Harbour in the city centre to the Severn Estuary at Avonmouth and Royal Portbury Dock.

Bristol's modern economy is built on the creative media, electronics and aerospace industries, and the city-centre docks have been redeveloped as centres of heritage and culture. The city has the largest circulating community currency in the UK; the Bristol pound, which is pegged to the Pound sterling. The city has two universities, the University of Bristol and the University of the West of England, and a variety of artistic and sporting organisations and venues including the Royal West of England Academy, the Arnolfini, Spike Island, Ashton Gate and the Memorial Stadium. It is connected to London and other major UK cities by road and rail, and to the world by sea and air: road, by the M5 and M4 (which connect to the city centre by the Portway and M32); rail, via Bristol Temple Meads and Bristol Parkway mainline rail stations; and Bristol Airport.

One of the UK's most popular tourist destinations, Bristol was named the best city in Britain in which to live in 2014 and 2017, and won the European Green Capital Award in 2015.