Aschoolis aneducational institutiondesigned to providelearning spacesandlearning environmentsfor the teaching ofstudents(or "pupils") under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of formaleducation, which is sometimescompulsory.In these systems, students progress through a series of schools. The names for these schools vary by country (discussed in theRegionalsection below) but generally includeprimary schoolfor young children andsecondary schoolfor teenagers who have completed primary education. An institution wherehigher educationis taught, is commonly called auniversity collegeoruniversity.
In addition to these core schools, students in a given country may also attend schools before and after primary (Elementary in the US) and secondary (Middle school in the US) education.Kindergartenorpreschoolprovide some schooling to very young children (typically ages 3–5).University,vocational school,collegeorseminarymay be available after secondary school. A school may be dedicated to one particular field, such as a school of economics or a school of dance.Alternative schoolsmay provide nontraditional curriculum and methods.
Non-government schools, also known as private schoolsmay be required when the government does not supply adequate, or specific educational needs. Other private schools can also be religious, such asChristian schools,gurukula(Hindu School),madrasa(Arabic schools),hawzas(Shi'i Muslim schools),yeshivas(Jewish schools), and others; or schools that have a higher standard of education or seek to foster other personal achievements. Schools for adults include institutions ofcorporate training,military education and trainingandbusiness schools.
Inhomeschoolinganddistance education, teaching and learning take place independent from the institution of school or in avirtual schooloutside a traditional school building respectively. Schools are commonly organized in several differentorganizational models, including departmental, small learning communities, academies, integrated, and schools-within-a-school.
Lichfield (/ˈlɪtʃfiːld/) is a cathedral city and civil parish in Staffordshire, England. Lichfield is situated roughly 16 mi (26 km) north of Birmingham, 8.1 miles (13.0 km) from Rugeley, 9 miles (14 km) from Walsall, 7.9 miles (12.7 km) from Tamworth and 13 miles (21 km) from Burton Upon Trent. At the time of the 2011 Census the population was estimated at 32,219 and the wider Lichfield District at 100,700.
Notable for its three-spired medieval cathedral, Lichfield was the birthplace of Samuel Johnson, the writer of the first authoritative Dictionary of the English Language. The city's recorded history began when Chad of Mercia arrived to establish his Bishopric in 669 AD and the settlement grew as the ecclesiastical centre of Mercia. In 2009, the Staffordshire Hoard, the largest hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold and silver metalwork, was found 5.9 km (3.7 mi) south-west of Lichfield.
The development of the city was consolidated in the 12th century under Roger de Clinton, who fortified the Cathedral Close and also laid out the town with the ladder-shaped street pattern that survives to this day. Lichfield's heyday was in the 18th century, when it developed into a thriving coaching city. This was a period of great intellectual activity, the city being the home of many famous people including Samuel Johnson, David Garrick, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward, and prompted Johnson's remark that Lichfield was "a city of philosophers".
Today, the city still retains its old importance as an ecclesiastical centre, and its industrial and commercial development has been limited. The centre of the city has over 230 listed buildings (including many examples of Georgian architecture), and preserves much of its historic character.