Visual Basic for Applications
Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) is an implementation of Microsoft's event-driven programming language Visual Basic 6, which was declared legacy in 2008, and is an associated integrated development environment (IDE). Although pre-.NET Visual Basic is no longer supported or updated by Microsoft, the VBA programming language was upgraded in 2010 with the introduction of Visual Basic for Applications 7 in Microsoft Office applications. As of 2020, VBA has held its position as "most dreaded" language for developers for 2 years, according to some who participated in surveys undertaken by Stack Overflow. (The most dreaded language for 2018 was Visual Basic 6).
Visual Basic for Applications enables building user-defined functions (UDFs), automating processes and accessing Windows API and other low-level functionality through dynamic-link libraries (DLLs). It supersedes and expands on the abilities of earlier application-specific macro programming languages such as Word's WordBASIC. It can be used to control many aspects of the host application, including manipulating user interface features, such as menus and toolbars, and working with custom user forms or dialog boxes.
As its name suggests, VBA is closely related to Visual Basic and uses the Visual Basic Runtime Library. However, VBA code normally can only run within a host application, rather than as a standalone program. VBA can, however, control one application from another using OLE Automation. For example, VBA can automatically create a Microsoft Word report from Microsoft Excel data that Excel collects automatically from polled sensors. VBA can use, but not create, ActiveX/COM DLLs, and later versions add support for class modules.
VBA is built into most Microsoft Office applications, including Office for Mac OS X (except version 2008), and other Microsoft applications, including Microsoft MapPoint and Microsoft Visio. VBA is also implemented, at least partially, in applications published by companies other than Microsoft, including ArcGIS, AutoCAD, CorelDraw, LibreOffice, Reflection, SolidWorks, WordPerfect, and UNICOM System Architect (which supports VBA 7.1).
Devon(/ˈdɛvən/, also known asDevonshire) is acountyofEngland, reaching from theBristol Channelin the north to theEnglish Channelin the south. It is part ofSouth West England, bounded byCornwallto the west,Somersetto the north-east andDorsetto the east. The city ofExeteris thecounty town. The county includes the districts ofEast Devon,Mid Devon,North Devon,South Hams,Teignbridge,TorridgeandWest Devon.PlymouthandTorbayare each geographically part of Devon, but are administered asunitary authorities.Combined as aceremonial county, Devon's area is 6,707 km2(2,590 square miles)and its population is about 1.1 million.
Devon derives its name fromDumnonia(the shift frommtovis a typicalCeltic consonant shift). During theBritish Iron Age,Roman Britainand theearly Middle Ages, this was the homeland of theDumnoniiBrittonicCelts. TheAnglo-Saxon settlement of Britainresulted in the partial assimilation of Dumnonia into theKingdom of Wessexduring the eighth and ninth centuries. The western boundary with Cornwall was set at theRiver TamarbyKing Æthelstanin 936. Devon was later constituted as ashireof theKingdom of England.
The north and south coasts of Devon each have both cliffs and sandy shores, and the county'sbayscontainseaside resorts,fishing townsandports. The inland terrain is rural, generally hilly and has a lower population density than many other parts of England.Dartmooris the largest open space in southern England, at 954 km2(368 square miles);itsmoorlandextends across a large expanse ofgranitebedrock. To the north of Dartmoor are theCulm MeasuresandExmoor. In the valleys and lowlands of south and east Devon the soil is more fertile, drained by rivers including theExe, theCulm, theTeign, theDartand theOtter.
As well as agriculture, much of theeconomy of Devonis based ontourism. The comparatively mild climate, coastline and landscape make Devon a destination forrecreation and leisure in England. Visitors are particularly attracted to the Dartmoor and Exmoornational parks; its coasts, including the resort towns along the south coast known collectively as theEnglish Riviera; theJurassic CoastandNorth Devon's UNESCO Biosphere Reserve; and the countryside including theCornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape.